Head & Spinal Cord Injuries


Spinal Cord Injuries

According To Khaleej Times patients suffering from Head & Spinal Cord Injuries may develop (weakness in arms and legs), or paraplegia, (weakness in legs).

Head & Spinal Cord Injuries rehabilitation involves a range of clinical disciplines such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, exercise physiology, recreational therapy, etc.

While around 500,000 people suffer from Head & Spinal Cord Injuries around the world each year, those affected by the disability in the UAE are mainly caused by road accidents and falls.


Head injury is mainly any kind of injury to our brain, bone of the head (skull), or scalp. It can be caused by mild collision or bruise to a traumatic brain injury.

Head injuries caused by shaking are most common in infants and small children. It can also be caused by a trauma to the head like motor vehicular accidents, falls, physical assaults, or sports-related accidents.


Hematoma– describes as an area of blood outside the blood vessels. It can cause a loss of consciousness.

Hemorrhage– uncontrolled blood loss in the space around the brain (subarachnoid) or inside the brain tissue (intracerebral). It can often cause headaches and vomiting.

Concussion- a mild traumatic brain injury that disturbs the function of the brain. It is generally caused by a blow to the head, aggressively shaking of the head and upper body, and contact sports such as football or soccer. Loss of function is associated if the concussion is temporary, while, permanent damage can be caused by repetitive concussions.

Edema- caused by swelling around the tissues. It affects any part of the body especially hands, arms, feet, ankles, and legs. Cerebral edema can blood supply restrictions on the brain. Blood supplies oxygen to the brain, which the function of the brain requires. A decreased in the oxygen brain can injure cells or cause them to die.

Skull fracture- any break in the cranial bone. It is majorly caused by an impact or a strong blow to the head that can break the bone.

Diffuse axonal injury – a sheer of the brain’s long connecting nerve fibers (axon) and happens when the brain is injured. It is one of the most dangerous types of brain injuries. It can cause permanent damage to the brain and death.


For minor head injury, the common symptoms include headache, lightheadedness, nausea, short term ringing in the ears, dizziness, and mild confusion. The symptoms for a severe head injury are the following: seizures,

The symptoms of a severe head injury include many of the symptoms of minor head injuries. They can also include seizures, vomiting, loss of consciousness, disoriented, abnormal movements of the eyes, balance, and coordination problem, extreme headache, unable to control muscles, memory loss, difficulty to focus the eyes, and brain fluid leak from the nose or ear.


GLASGOW COMA SCALE – a 15-point test that assesses mental status. A high GCS score directs a less severe injury.

NERVE FUNCTION EVALUATION– assessing muscle control and strength, eye movement, and sensation.

CT SCAN – look for fractures, bleeding or clotting, brain swelling, and any other damage. It is the first imaging needed.

MRI – a more detailed view of the brain, usually done if the patient is stable already.


Spinal injury is damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal (cauda equina). Strength, sensation, and other functions of the body below the site of the injury will be affected. It causes permanent changes in strength, sensation, and other body functions below the site of the injury.


The common causes of spinal cord injuries are motor vehicle accidents (leading cause), falls (older than 65 years old), sports and recreation injuries (impact sports), acts of violence (gunshot or knife wounds), alcohol, and diseases (spinal cord inflammation, osteoporosis, arthritis, and cancer).


There are two types of injury – complete and incomplete:

  • Complete – sensory and motor loss below the spinal cord injury that causes permanent damage to the part of the spinal cord that is affected. The results of complete spinal cord injuries are paraplegia or tetraplegia.
  • Tetraplegia. Also known as quadriplegia, paralysis on both upper and lower part of the body; the most severe type of spinal injury
  • Paraplegia. This paralysis affects all or part of the trunk, and lower half part of the body.
  • Incomplete – partial impairment to the spinal cord, some motor or sensory function below the affected area is compromised.
  • Brown-Séquard syndrome– one-sided hemisection of the cord; ipsilateral spastic paralysis and loss of position sense below the lesion, and contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation.
  • Anterior cord syndrome– straight injury to the anterior spinal cord or to the anterior spinal artery; motor and pain sensation lost bilaterally below the lesion; vibration and proprioception are intact.
  • Central cord syndrome– caused by hyperextension injury that leads to the narrowed cervical spinal canal. Upper extremities are more affected than the lower extremities. Sensory loss below the site of the injury and loss of bladder control may also occur, as well as painful sensations such as tinging, burning, or a dull ache.


  • Spinal cord injuries of any kind may result in one or more of the following signs and symptoms
    • Muscle weakness
    • Breathing problems
    • Loss of movement
    • Hyperreflexia or spasms
    • Sexual dysfunction
    • Neurogenic pain
    • Altered sensations on the affected part
    • Inability to control bowel or bladder


  • Blood tests
  • X-ray
  • Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Contact Physioveda Medical Center

  • You can visit the Clinic by taking the appointment.


    You can book an appointment for a home consultation also by:

    • Call Physioveda Medical Center for inquiries on
    • 800 VEDA (800 8332)
    • 800 HOMECARE (800 466 322 73)
    • Secure an appointment at info@physioveda.ae

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